Lamz.Guardians of the Skies: Exploring Russia’s Stalwart Air Defense with the Mikoyan MiG-31

The MiG-31, also known as the Western reporting name Foxhound-A, was developed as part of an overall program to provide the Soviet air defenses with the ability to meet the threat posed by NATO low-level strike and cruise missiles. It was also intended to fulfill high-altitude and high-speed interception roles.

It was developed as a successor to the MiG-25 interceptor. The prototype Ye-155MP first flew in 1975, and production of the MiG-31 began in 1979, entering service in 1982. A total of 519 of these aircraft were produced. The MiG-31s continue to form the backbone of Russia’s air defenses, with at least 300 of them still in service, boasting around 15 fighter regiments.

Kazakhstan is the only former Soviet republic to operate the MiG-31, with a regiment based at Semipalatinsk. Some sources reported that in 2016, a total of 6 MiG-31 interceptors were delivered to Syria. By 2017, a total of 110 aircraft were reportedly upgraded to MiG-31BM and MiG-31BMS standards in order to extend their operational lives. It is planned that all operational MiG-31s will be upgraded or retired.

This interceptor was designed to engage high-flying and high-speed aircraft, such as the Lockheed SR-71 reconnaissance planes. The MiG-31 has the speed, altitude, and rate of climb, among other capabilities, to successfully intercept such targets. The MiG-31 is among the fastest production interceptors, using missiles to shoot down enemy aircraft at long ranges.

The MiG-31’s Zaslon radar was the world’s first phased-array unit. This radar had a range of 200 kilometers and could track 10 targets simultaneously, controlling the engagement of four of them at once. Until 2001, the MiG-31 was the world’s only serial fighter aircraft equipped with a phased-array radar, even surpassing a Japanese Mitsubishi F-2 when it adopted a phased-array radar.

Operational experiences showed that the MiG-31 was efficient in range and some 40-45 aircraft were fitted with semi-retractable in-flight refueling probes.

Several variants of the MiG-31 were prepared for a variety of roles, including defense suppression and long-range interception.


The MiG-31M was an advanced version of the MiG-31. It was designed to exploit the long-range R-37 missiles (with a claimed range of up to 200 km) as well as the R-77 medium-range air-to-air missiles. It featured the Zaslon-M radar, a range of new avionics systems, and an extensively redesigned cockpit with new displays and upgraded D-30F-6M engines. The first of seven flying MiG-31Ms made its maiden flight in 1985. The MiG-31M had the advantage of being born at the right time, as tensions burgeoned when the defense budgets were being slashed. The program was eventually stopped, and the MiG-31M never reached series production.

The MiG-31B, developed in 1990, represented a significant advancement in the MiG-31 series. It boasted the improved Zaslon-M radar, which could track 24 air targets simultaneously and control the engagement of six of them at once. The MiG-31B also featured better electronic countermeasures capabilities and could carry the upgraded R-33S air-to-air missiles. Additionally, it incorporated improved avionics, including new digital processors. All existing MiG-31 aircraft were eventually upgraded to this standard, designated as the MiG-31BS.

The MiG-31BS, an upgraded version of the original MiG-31 aircraft, marked a transition from the MiG-31B standard. However, it lacked in-flight refueling capability.

The MiG-31E represented a proposed export version of the MiG-31B, with downgraded radar.

The MiG-31F was a multi-role fighter prototype with added ground attack capabilities, but it never reached production.

The MiG-31FE was a planned export version of the MiG-31F. This designation was also used for a proposed export version of the MiG-31BM.

The MiG-31BM is the latest version, introduced in 1998. It is an improved version of the MiG-31B, featuring an added air-to-ground capability. The MiG-31BM serves as a true multi-role fighter aircraft, able to undertake long-range interception, precision strike, and defensive suppression missions. One of its key roles is the suppression of enemy air defenses. Both cockpit layouts feature advanced displays that assist the crew in decision-making, precision strike, and defensive suppression tasks. One of its roles is the suppression of enemy air defenses, including enemy air defense networks and defense systems.

This advanced aircraft, known as the MiG-31BSM, represents a significant leap in capabilities compared to its predecessor, the MiG-31BS. It boasts an improved Zaslon-AM radar system, allowing it to detect and engage targets at a maximum range of 320 kilometers. What sets it apart is its ability to simultaneously track up to 8 aircraft targets. Furthermore, unlike earlier versions like the MiG-31BM, this aircraft can function effectively as a small airborne early warning and control platform. Equipped with its powerful radar and long-range detection capabilities, it’s well-suited for tracking and datalink communications with numerous radar contacts.

The MiG-31BSM can also serve as an airborne command post and coordinate the actions of other types of fighters that have lower power radar systems. Its design adaptation from the MiG-31BS, though it lacks in-flight refueling capability, enables it to operate for at least another 15 years.


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